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فرهنگ و ارتباطات؛ سیاستگذاری - تفاوت فرهنگ ژاپن و آمریکا در جهانی شدن فرهنگ و ارتباطات (به نقل از کتاب ارتباطات بین الملل، دایا کیشان)

تفاوت فرهنگ ژاپن و آمریکا در جهانی شدن فرهنگ و ارتباطات (به نقل از کتاب ارتباطات بین الملل، دایا کیشان)

تاریخ:چهارشنبه 27 شهریور 1392-10:08 ق.ظ

In The Name Of Allah
Subject:
TAKING JAPANIZATION SERIOUSLY:
CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION RECONSIDERED
Author:Koichi Iwabuchi


Situation of Japan in The world
Japan has become the second biggest economic power in the world, its external influence has come to be discussed in terms of the export of Japanese management and industrial relations techniques and Japanese organizational culture.
Such discourses started in the 1970s, when many Western scholars advocated that the West should learn lessons from the Japanese economic success. 
"Japanrzation" of industrial relations and organizational cultures was discussed specifically in the search for post-Fordist industrial models, whereby "Toyotism" for example, attracted much attention as a more flexible production system than Fordism.


Global cultural flows & Japanese media industries 
However, it was not until the late 1980s that the significance of Japan in the global culture market began attracting wider international academic and media attention. It was a time when Sony and Matsushita were buying out Hollywood film studios and the animation film Akira was a hit in the Western markets.
Japanese media industries and cultural forms are playing a substantial role in global cultural flows. It seems that Japanese cultural power may finally match its economic dominance. 

Affects Of Japanese Consumer Technologies 
In the realm of audiovisual commodities, there is no doubt that Japan has been a dominant exporter of consumer technologies as well as animation and computer games.
From VCRS, computer games, karaoke machines, and the Walkman, to the more recent appearance of digital video cameras, the prevalence of Japanese consumer electronics in the global marketplace is overwhelming. 

Affects Of Japanese consumer technologies 
Japanese consumer technologies certainly have had a tremendous impact on our everyday life, an impact.
 This development has been based upon the adage "First for consumers”.
These are "cultural technologies" that mediate between texts, spaces, and audiences. 
New cultural technologies open new possibilities for the consumption of media texts by audiences.
New cultural technologies open up new ways for capital to accommodate itself to the emergent communication space in the service of individual consumer sovereignty.
Access to diverse programs which have been officially banned.

Affects Of Japanese consumer technologies 
These consumer technologies give people greater choice and mobility in their media consumption activities in domestic, private spaces.
Intrusion نفوذ of private media into public spaces, VCRS allowed people to "time shift.

Approaches about Affect of Jeanne's Culture  
Cultural Discount to explain the fact that even though certain Japanese films and literature have had a Western following, the outflow of Japanese popular cultural has been disproportionately small. 
Hoskins and Mirus describe "cultural discount" as occurring when "a particular program rooted in one culture and thus attractive in that environment will have a diminished appeal elsewhere as viewers find it difficult to identify with (empathize with ) the style, values, beliefs, institutions and behavioral patterns of the material in question.
 
Approaches about Affects of Japanese's Culture 
American popular culture, and the prevalence of the English language are no doubt advantageous to Hollywood. By contrast, Japanese language is not widely spoken outside Japan and Japan is supposedly obsessed with its own cultural uniqueness. 
Culturally Neutral consumer technologies, whose country of origin has nothing to do with the way [that they work] and the satisfaction [that a consumer] obtains from usage.
Cultural Products of Japan like music, magazines are used in all the world.
Any product has the cultural imprint of the producing country, even if it is not recognized as such. 

Cultural Odorless & Cultural Odor
I use the term cultural odor to focus on the way in which cultural features of a country of origin and images or ideas of its national, in most cases stereotyped, way of life are associated positively with a particular product in the consumption process.
The way in which the cultural odor of a particular product becomes a "fragrance"—a socially and culturally acceptable smell—is not determined simply by the consumer's perception that something is "made in Japan”.

Cultural Odorless & Cultural Odor
The cultural odor of a product is also closely associated with racial and bodily images of a country of origin.
 The characters of Japanese animation and computer games for the most part do not look "Japanese” .but also implying the erasure of racial or ethnic characteristics or a context, which does not imprint a particular culture or country with these features.

Example for cultural odor
McDonald's throughout the world, for example, can be discerned in terms of the bureaucratization and standardization of food; and the principles governing the operation of McDonald's can also be extended to other everyday life activities such as education and shopping.
It is a discursive construction of what is "America" that confers on McDonald's its powerful association with "Americanness." 
Unlike American commodities, "Japanese consumer goods do not seek to sell on the back of a Japanese way of life.  

Exports of Japanese's Cultural Products 
More significantly, Japan is not only increasing its capital and market share in the audiovisual global market but also its cultural presence on the global scene through the export of culturally odorless products other than consumer technologies.
 There was considerable reaction from within the United States against these buyouts, including claims that the Japanese were "buying into America's soul.
Japanese animation and computer games have attained a certain degree of popularity and become recognized as very "Japanese" in a positive and affirmative sense in Western countries as well as in non-Western countries.

Approaches about Affects of Japanese Products 
That Japan has replaced the United States as an object of yearning. 
Unlike American popular culture, is still not an image or idea of Japan .
While the notion of "Americanization" includes broad cultural and ideological influences, such as ideas of American democracy and the American way of life based upon affluent, middle-class material cultures, Igarashi argues that "Japanization" only embodies consumer culture and thus represents "more materialistic cultural dissemination." 

Approaches about Affects of Japanese Products 
American political scientist Joseph Nye (1990, 188) argues that a significant factor that confers on the United States a global hegemony is its "soft co-optic power," that is, the power of "getting others to want what you want" through symbolic power resources such as media and consumer culture: "If [a dominant country's] culture and ideology are attractive, others will more willingly follow" .In contrast, Nye contends that Japan is a one-dimensional economic power and its consumer commodities, no matter how globally disseminated, still lack an associated "appeal to a broader set of values" and thus are culturally odorless.

Contentious Issue
It remains a contentious issue, however, what power status (image of power) the global spread of Japanese animations and computer games may have granted to Japan?
Japan Situation in Globalization; Homogeneity & Domination 
The expansive force of globalization, the transmission of cultural forms from the dominant to the rest via communication technologies and transportation systems.
 Under these developments, discourse on globalization has tended to facilitate myths of global coherence (Ferguson 1992) by its evocation of global synchronization or a Utopian view of world unity, in the same way that McLuhan's famous term global village connotes a sense of bonding, togetherness, and immediacy.
These moves testify to the increasing trend of global media mergers which aim to offer a "total cultural package" of various media products under a single media conglomerate.
The rise of Japanese media industries articulates a new phase of global cultural flow dominated by a small number of transnational corporations.
The incursion can be seen as a confirmation of the supremacy of American software creativity and therefore of Japan's second-rate ability as a software producer.

Affects Of Japanese consumer technologies 
On the whole, this development has consequently encouraged global centralization of the distribution and production of software as well as facilitating the further spread of American software.
VCRS have helped Hollywood open up new markets and find ways of exploiting new technologies through video rental and export of TV programs to newly privatized channels. 

Japan Situation in Globalization; Homogeneity & Domination 
On the contrary, it was to make Hollywood omnipresent. Japanese ingenuity in hardware production and American genius in software go hand in hand because (Japanese) consumer technologies work as "distribution systems" for (American) entertainment products (Berland 1992,46). These Japanese companies strengthen American cultural hegemony by investing in the production of Hollywood films and by facilitating their distribution all over the globe.
Media globalization also promotes the incorporation of Japanese, and other non-Western, media products into the Western-dominated global distribution network. 



Japan Situation in Globalization; Decentralization & Diversity
I suggest, be read as a symptom of the shifting nature of transnational cultural power in a context in which intensified global cultural flows have decentered the power structure and vitalized local practices of appropriation and consumption of foreign cultural products and meanings. 
It also facilitates "the de-centering of capitalism from the West through increasing integration, networking, and cooperation among worldwide transnational media industries, including non-Western ones.
The unambiguous American domination of global culture is also put into question by the rise of other global players such as Brazil & Japan.

Japan Situation in Globalization; Glocalization, indigenization
Ang (1996, 13) argues that there has been a significant shift in audience reception of TV texts in the postmodern age, in that audiences are expected to be active, not simply in theory but in their real-life situations, producing meaning out of multifarious media texts. Likewise, it can be argued that the local needs to be creative in articulating difference by indigenizing the global. 
Tunstall (1995) suggests, in arguing the relative decline of American media power in the world, that the Japanese mode of indigenization of American original media products can be seen as a pattern in the development of non-Western TV industries, which, he predicts, other non-Western countries such as China or India will follow.

Japan Situation in Globalization; Glocalization, indigenization
The term refers to a global strategy which does not seek to impose a standard product or image, but instead is tailored (درخور و مناسب) to the demands of the local market.
Featherstone's observation is derived from the fact that the Japan-originated marketing strategy of "global localization“—or "glocalization"—has come to be credited as a leading formula for global corporations in the 1990s in place of "global standardization”.




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